The Achilles tendon is a strong fibrous cord that connects the muscles in the back of your calf to your heel bone. If you overstretch your Achilles tendon, it can tear, affecting the back of your lower leg.
A bursa is a fluid-filled sac that reduces friction between tendons and bones. Bursitis is caused by inflammation of the bursa; bursa are important structures in both the ankle joint and the subtalar joint because they ensure the structures of the joint move smoothly. Bursitis of the ankle could be a result of a fall where one lands improperly onto the ankle or bursa, continuous pressure that involves prolonged kneeling, or repetitive injury to the bursa and tendons, particularly the achilles.
Inflammation of the muscle tendon is called tendonitis, and usually results by the tendon being pinched by surrounding structures. Ankle tendonitis is usually caused by overuse, like in athletic activities that strain the ankle and foot, like soccer or running.
An ankle fracture involves breaks in the bones around the ankle joint. These bones include the tibia (the shinbone), the fibula (outer ankle bone), and the talus (the bone that connects your leg to your foot).